The illegal uprising by the army against the elected governments and the bloody civil war that followed was a prelude to World War II. Remarkably, when racism was defeated elsewhere, the right-wing dictatorships endured in Spain and Portugal. With Europe developing new economies and institutions it was inevitable that the end would come. When it did, Spain transformed itself into an amazingly vibrant and confident democracy. The story in Portugal is similar. This day course will explore the history, issues and legacy. No stone will be left unturned.